Production of Acetic anhydride

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Production of Acetic anhydride

Post  disney on Wed May 12, 2010 6:33 pm

Acetic anhydride is produced by carbonylation of methyl acetate:

CH3CO2CH3 + CO → (CH3CO)2O
This process involves the conversion of methyl acetate to methyl iodide and an acetate salt. Carbonylation of the methyl iodide in turn affords acetyl iodide, which reacts with acetate salts or acetic acid to give the product. Rhodium and lithium iodides are employed as catalysts. Because acetic anhydride is not stable in water, the conversion is conducted under anhydrous conditions. In contrast, the Monsanto acetic acid process, which also involves a rhodium catalyzed carbonylation of methyl iodide, is at least partially aqueous.
To a decreasing extent, acetic anhydride is also prepared by the reaction of ketene with acetic acid at 45–55 °C and low pressure (0.05–0.2 bar).

H2C=C=O + CH3COOH → (CH3CO)2O (ΔH = −63 kJ/mol)
Ketene is generated by dehydrating acetic acid at 700–750 °C in the presence of triethyl phosphate as a catalyst or (in Switzerland and the CIS) by the thermolysis of acetone at 600–700 °C in the presence of carbon disulfide as a catalyst.

CH3COOH H2C=C=O + H2O (ΔH = +147 kJ/mol)
CH3COCH3 → H2C=C=O + CH4
The route from acetic acid to acetic anhydride via ketene was developed by Wacker Chemie in 1922, when the demand for acetic anhydride increased due to the production of cellulose acetate.
Due to its low cost, acetic anhydride is purchased, not prepared, for use in research laboratories.

disney

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