Introduction Of Toluene

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Introduction Of Toluene

Post  pipi72009 on Fri Jul 15, 2011 3:17 pm

Toluene, formerly known as toluol, is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners. Chemically it is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, i.e. one in which a single hydrogen atom from the benzene molecule has been replaced by a univalent group, in this case CH3.
Toluene reacts as a normal aromatic hydrocarbon towards electrophilic aromatic substitution. The methyl group makes it around 25 times more reactive than benzene in such reactions. It undergoes smooth sulfonation to give p-toluenesulfonic acid, and chlorination by Cl2 in the presence of FeCl3 to give ortho and para isomers of chlorotoluene. It undergoes nitration to give ortho and para nitrotoluene isomers, but if heated it can give dinitrotoluene and ultimately the explosive trinitrotoluene . With other reagents the methyl side chain in toluene may react, undergoing oxidation. Reaction with basify potassium permanganate and diluted acid or potassium permanganate with concentrated sulfuric acid, leads to benzoic acid, whereas reaction with chromyl chloride leads to benzaldehyde. Halogenation can be performed under free radical conditions. For example, N-bromosuccinimide heated with toluene in the presence of AIBN leads to benzyl bromide. Toluene can also be treated with elemental bromine in the presence of UV light to yield benzyl bromide.
Catalytic hydrogenation of toluene to methylcyclohexane requires a high pressure of hydrogen to go to completion, because of the stability of the aromatic system. pKa is approximately 45.
Toluene occurs naturally at low levels in crude oil and is usually produced in the processes of making gasoline via a catalytic reformer, in an ethylene cracker or making coke from coal. Final separation takes place in a BTX plant.
Toluene is a common solvent, able to dissolve paints, paint thinners, silicone sealants, many chemical reactants, rubber, printing ink, adhesives, lacquers, leather tanners, and disinfectants. It can also be used as a fullerene indicator, and is a raw material for toluene diisocyanate and TNT. In addition, it is used as a solvent to create a solution of carbon nanotubes. It is also used as a cement for fine polystyrene kits as it can be applied very precisely by brush and contains none of the bulk of an adhesive.
Industrial uses of toluene include dealkylation to benzene, and the disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene in the BTX process. When oxidized it yields benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, two important intermediates in chemistry. It is also used as a carbon source for making Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes. Toluene can be used to break open red blood cells in order to extract hemoglobin in biochemistry experiments.

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Re: Introduction Of Toluene

Post  shagydeep on Mon Feb 25, 2013 4:42 pm

Hello,
Thanks for describing in such nice way...

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